The “3 to 6 test” is simple.
Set aside 3-to-6 months’ fixed costs as a cash cushion for your business. That’s the amount recommended by Mark L. Mayoka, a CPA who advises small businesses on how NOT to go out of business.
The “3 to 6 test” is a rule of thumb. If you have that amount set aside, it can liberate you as the business owner. It can be the catalyst for growth.
As Mayoka writes in his book, “Financial Crisis Planning for Small Business,” having such a cash cushion:
“allows you to focus on forward-looking business development instead of struggling just to keep the doors open for business. In these times of intense and widespread economic stress, the lean and careful not only survive, but thrive as well. Opportunities abound in times of crisis if you know how to take advantage of them. There is an old Chinese saying that luck is being prepared when the right opportunity presents itself.”
There’s a lot of talk these days about how recessions and bad economies are times of opportunity. I agree with that sentiment. But I’m bothered by the fact that few commentators and coaches point out that your business also has to be healthy enough to jump on opportunities. You can’t seize opportunities if every day is a struggle to make payroll and you’re living on the razor’s edge between staying afloat or going under.
So, let’s assume you are able to set aside 3-to-6 months’ fixed costs. You now have your business’s rainy day fund. Depending on the size of your business that could add up to a lot of money – six figures. So the question becomes: what do you do with that money? Here are 4 tips:
(1) Do not just leave that cash in a non-interest bearing checking account. Invest it somewhere. Even a low-interest savings account or bank CD could earn thousands of dollars per year in interest. That’s thousands of dollars in new sales your team doesn’t have to go out and get.
(2) Use large deposits as leverage with your bank. Get your bank to waive fees. When you have significant money with them, you have negotiating power.
(3) Pay attention to FDIC coverage rules. The rules can be a little complex, and what I’m about to say is a bit of an oversimplification, but here goes: your deposits are insured only up to $250,000 per bank. Any amounts over the limit are at risk of being lost if the bank should fail. If you have your business checking account with the same bank as your rainy day fund, you could easily exceed the $250,000 insurance coverage. It gets even trickier if your business is a sole proprietorship. Sole proprietors’ business accounts may be combined with personal accounts for FDIC insurance calculation purposes. In other words, you may have less coverage than you think if you’re a sole proprietor.
Go to the FDIC website and find out whether your deposits are fully covered in your bank. If you are not covered, move some of your money to other banks. (For more information, see my earlier article on FDIC coverage for small businesses and sole proprietors.)
(4) Consider short-term U.S. Treasury bills as an investment vehicle. This is one of Mayoka’s recommendations as a safe alternative.
Just remember, a 3-to-6 month cash reserve fund will have you sleeping peacefully at night. You’ll be in a position to think and act strategically – instead of jumping from one tactical crisis to another. And that’s when you will have the mindshare to devote to new opportunities, and the cash at hand to act on your plans.
Editor’s note: this article was originally published at the American Express OPEN Forum and is reprinted with permission.