How to Start a Goat Farm

how to start a goat farm

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There are reasons that the goat farming business is increasingly popular. As hoofed farm critters go, goats are easier to house and feed than other livestock, such as cattle and pigs.

And a goat farmer will tell you that goats are interesting as well as a profitable business. They are social animals with quirky habits.

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Here’s how to get started goat farming.

What are Goat Farms?

Goat farms are places where farmers breed and raise domestic goats.

Goats are primarily raised for their milk, meat or fiber. Each goat breed was created distinctly for one of those purposes, although there are some crossover breeds (milk and meat goats).

Any goat breed can be used for a relatively new goat farming purpose – using goats to clear brush. No, they won’t eat tin cans, but they will effectively kill underbrush by eating it.

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Miniature goat farming is also popular, as the smaller goats are used as pets and in petting zoos.

How to Start a Goat Farm

How Much Does It Cost to Start a Goat Farm?

You can expect to spend from $100 to $800 for registered breeding stock, with the registered female (doe) bringing top dollar. You may pay about $1,200 for a registered milking goat, such as a Nubian, or for a meat producer doe.

To start, you’ll need a male (buck) and several does. Alternately, you can purchase pregnant goats.

You’ll need a barn or shed and goat proof fencing – typically a combination of “no climb” woven wire and electric fencing wire. You’ll need a place to provide shelter and store hay, especially if you have a cold, wet winter season.

Minimal milking equipment will cost you at least $1,500. You’ll need state inspection and licensing to produce, process and sell milk, and follow label requirements. This varies by state, but that’s a basic guideline.

You’ll need a truck and a trailer, to pick up hay and to transport goats.

How do Goat Farms Make Money?

  1. Breed and sell goats.
  2. Sell milk. Goats must be milked 2x a day and will produce about a gallon.
  3. Raise and sell goats for meat.
  4. Rent goats to eat brush, clearing land.
  5. Raise goats for their fleece, which is sheared (2x a year), washed and eventually spun into high quality yarn.
  6. Sell dairy products such as soap made with milk.
  7. Sell fiber goat products such as fleece or yarn.

How to Start a Goat Farm

Starting a Goat Farm in 19 Simple Steps

As with many farming ventures, start with research. Research breeds, nd also learn your local zoning ordinances before you bring them to your new farm.

1. Decide What Type of Goat Farm to Run






2. Select Your Goat Breed (Dairy Goats or Meat Goats)

Dairy and meat are the two main choices, and there are different breeds within those two types. A meat goat is typically larger than other breeds. The dairy types must be milked two times a day to produce milk.

The male goat is made a “wether” (castrated) at about 10 to 12 weeks old.

Let’s talk Goat Production 101. Does to into heat every 21 days. When the does are in heat, an intact buck will urinate on itself. Goat farmers know that the timing of mating is critical, so males are kept separate from the females. But due to their habits, the intact males have a strong, offensive odor.

You only need one buck, at first. If they won’t be used for breeding, other males are made “wethers” (castrated) at about 10 to 12 weeks old. They won’t smell like the intact male bucks do.

One of the most popular of the miniature goat breeds is the Nigerian dwarf. They get along well with other animals and they’re, well, adorable.

3. Do a Market Survey

Are there other goat farms in your area? What are they raising? Any type of goat farming is a niche; make sure your new business will be able to compete.

Go to your state’s Farm Show, talk to a goat farmer or two. Subscribe to farm journals and other resources.

4. Make Sure You Have the Necessary Qualifications Knowledge on Raising Goats

Although they are hardy animals, they can get sick. You’ll need to train yourself to notice any changes in behavior that may require medication or a visit from a veterinarian.

You’ll need planning skills, to set up long-term feed suppliers.

You’ll need general contractor skills, to maintain the electric fencing, build and repair the animals’ housing, build and repair hay mangers and other general farm work.

You’ll need to be someone who doesn’t mind hard, outdoor work.

How to Start a Goat Farm

5. Create a Goat Farming Business Plan

A commonality of goat farming is an expectation that you may have losses as you build stock. Let’s say you start with one buck and three does. The does have goat kids; now you have 7. But you can’t use your original buck to breed to the young females since he is too closely related. He can be used to rebreed those 3 original does, but you need another buck (or a loaner) to breed the youngsters.

Items in your goat farming business plan:

  1. Set up housing and fencing for the animals.
  2. Set up reliable food sources for hay and grain. Build a place to store hay and grain out of the weather.
  3. Buy good quality new goats to start your goat farming business.
  4. Make a breeding schedule. As we stated, females go into heat every 21 days. The gestation period is 145 to 155 days. Depending on your climate, you want to time births in general for spring months. Neutered males can live with the females.
  5. Develop a marketing plan for where you will sell and how you will grow the herd.
  6. Set aside money for veterinary costs, which is a part of owning livestock. As with any farm animal, they are susceptible to diseases.

6. Name and Brand Your Business

Choose a name that reflects the type of business you’re going to operate.

For example, Bleating Brush Clearers conveys a different focus than Mikey’s Mini Kids.

7. Form a Legal Entity and Register Your Goat Business

The Limited Liability Company, or LLC, is highly recommended.

An LLC makes sense because as a herd in a fence, the species is notorious for escape. They are extremely athletic. Nearly everything is food to them, including your neighbors’ expensive landscape plants or farm crops.

A business is typically registered with the Secretary of State.

Other choices are a sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation.

8. Buy the Necessary Equipment

In addition to the housing and fencing, and hay storage area, you’ll need:

Mangers and hay racks, grain troughs (best design is accessible from outside the building, so the herd doesn’t crowd you, making feeding easier). Food should be kept dry. Two times a day feeding is best.

Wheelbarrows, rakes and shovels, hoses

Truck and trailer

Separate area for pregnant (nearly due) females, lactating females and kids, along with feeding areas for them.

Hoof trimmers

How to Start a Goat Farm

9. Open a Business Bank Account

Definitely have a separate business bank account and a separate business credit card.

10. Choose a Location and Consider Zoning

Most likely you will need zoning that is Agricultural. And there are guidelines for that.

Learn your zoning laws. Zoning can differ by state. Most commonly, hoofed farm stock is counted by “animal unit.” Larger animals, such as horses and cattle, count as one unit each. For smaller animals, such as goats, sheep and swine, it takes four of them to equal one unit.

Commonly, 1 unit is allowed per half acre.

In other words, if you fence off one acre you could keep 8 goats within it.

11. Purchase and Sort Out Licenses

You’ll need farm insurance, which falls under general agribusiness insurance. Each state has a farm bureau, which is a great source of information on this topic.

For instance, you can opt for “blanket” coverage for buildings, equipment and stock.

You’ll need a business license. If you’re going to sell products you’ll need an EIN, or Employer Identification Number, which you’ll use to pay sales tax or taxes you’ll pay if you hire employees.

12. Build a Pasture and Goat House

Your stock needs a shelter where they can stay dry and out of the wind. You’ll need to keep the bucks and does, so the bucks don’t breed the does at the wrong time of year.

Although it may be more cost effective to adapt an existing structure, there are features that make your life easier. Those features include a no-freeze water hydrant, and easily accessible hay mangers and feed troughs. Not having to hand-carry water is an important factor.

You’ll have to check the pasture fencing as a routine, because fallen branches or branch growth can touch the electric wire. If that happens, your electric fence won’t work properly.

Add high quality food to the daily pasture browse. Neighbors who are clearing brush may want to “donate” those branches to you but remember that certain feeds (such as walnut tree leaves and twigs) are poisonous to goats.

13. Hire Employees

Your hardest challenge will be hiring someone who can take care of your farm when you’re away. As part of marketing, you may be attending farm shows and similar events. You’ll need a reliable person who can feed and water, and also notice if any of the stock seem ill.

14. Purchasing Goats

If possible, buy your stock shortly after they had a health check, also called a health clearance, from a veterinarian. A health clearance from a veterinarian should state the goat, on a certain date, was free from communicable diseases. If you’ll be crossing state lines, you’ll need a health clearance.

When adding new ones to an existing herd, keep the new ones separate for a period of time.

15. Care for and Raise Goats

Stick to a feeding schedule as best you can. Two times a day is recommended. For optimum nutrition, they need constant access to clean water and plenty of fresh air.

When the stock reaches breeding age, begin your goat rearing venture.

16. Market the Business

Attend farm shows and consider setting up a booth there and at other agriculture-themed events.

If you’re selling products, develop a brochure and business cards you can leave at promising business outlets.

Create a FB page and website.

Depending on which breed you’ve chosen, visit butcher shops, specialty grocers, farm markets and health food stores.

17. Create Your Products

Goat meat and milk are common products. The actual animal itself – sold to become part of a petting zoo or brush clearing herd – is a product in itself. If you’ve opted for fiber, you can sell finished yarn or the sheared and washed fleeces.

You need a state license to produce, process and sell milk. Your equipment and processing area must meet strict sanitary guidelines. You’ll be inspected to get a license for that business, which is most often called a Dairy Processing Plant License. There will also be product labeling requirements.

Often a meat goat is shipped live to a butcher shop. Each goat needs to have a tag affixed to it that gives the location of its home herd, plus have an identifying ear tag, chip or tattoo.

18. Choose Where to Sell Your Products

Farm Stand

Specialty Groceries

Health Food Store

Agriculture themed events and fairs

From your farm

19. Expand Your Business

Compared to other livestock, goats are easier to transport. Do visits to schools, or if you’re selling products at a fair, bring a hoofed friend or two along to drive traffic to your booth.

If your farm is attractive, consider inviting the public to learn more about what you do.

Benefits of Goat Farming: Why It’s a Growing Industry

The goat farming industry is on the rise, attracting individuals and entrepreneurs for several compelling reasons. Here’s a look at the key benefits that contribute to the increasing popularity of goat farming:

  • Low Entry Barriers: Starting a goat farming business requires relatively lower initial investment compared to some other livestock ventures, making it accessible to a wider range of people.
  • Diverse Revenue Streams: Goat farming offers various income sources, including meat, milk, fiber, and even brush-clearing services. This diversification can contribute to a more stable and sustainable business model.
  • Ease of Management: Goats are known for their hardiness and adaptability. They are easier to manage and require less intensive care compared to larger livestock, such as cattle or pigs.
  • Quick Return on Investment: Goats reach maturity faster than many other livestock animals, allowing for a quicker return on investment. This can be especially appealing to those looking for relatively fast profits.
  • Sustainable Land Use: Goat farming can be a sustainable way to utilize land, especially for brush clearing. Goats efficiently clear underbrush, making them valuable for land maintenance and fire prevention.
  • Niche Markets: Goat products, such as goat cheese, milk, and fiber, often cater to niche markets that are willing to pay a premium for quality and uniqueness.
  • Versatility in Breeds: With numerous goat breeds available, farmers can choose breeds that align with their business goals, whether it’s for meat, milk, fiber, or other purposes.
  • Educational Opportunities: Goat farming provides educational opportunities for individuals, schools, and communities interested in learning about agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • Community Engagement: Goat farms, especially those offering agrotourism or educational programs, can strengthen connections between farmers and their local communities.
  • Environmental Benefits: Goat farming can have positive environmental impacts, such as reducing invasive plant species through controlled grazing and minimizing the use of heavy machinery for land maintenance.
  • Potential for Innovation: The goat farming industry continues to evolve, offering room for innovation in areas like product development, breeding practices, and sustainable farming techniques.
Benefits of Goat FarmingReasonsKey Advantages
Low Entry BarriersAffordable startupAccessible to a wider range of individuals; lower initial investment compared to other livestock ventures
Diverse Revenue StreamsVaried income sourcesMeat, milk, fiber, and brush-clearing services contribute to a stable and sustainable business model
Ease of ManagementHardy and adaptableEasier to manage and require less intensive care compared to larger livestock
Quick Return on InvestmentFaster maturityQuicker ROI due to faster maturity, appealing to those seeking relatively fast profits
Sustainable Land UseEfficient land utilizationEffective for brush clearing, aiding land maintenance and fire prevention
Niche MarketsUnique productsGoat products cater to niche markets, offering premium quality and uniqueness
Versatility in BreedsTailored to goalsVarious goat breeds available to align with specific business goals
Educational OpportunitiesLearning opportunitiesProvides education about agriculture and animal husbandry for individuals, schools, and communities
Community EngagementStrengthened connectionsAgrotourism and educational programs enhance ties between farmers and local communities
Environmental BenefitsPositive ecological impactControlled grazing helps reduce invasive plants, minimizes heavy machinery use, contributing to environmental health
Potential for InnovationEvolving industryOngoing potential for innovation in product development, breeding practices, and sustainable farming techniques

The numerous benefits associated with goat farming make it an attractive option for those seeking a rewarding and potentially profitable agricultural venture. As the industry continues to grow, it presents opportunities for individuals to contribute to sustainable food systems and unique product markets.

What is the average goat farming profit?

Most who are getting started count on outside income as they build the herd and this should be part of your small farm business plan.

Those who supply “grazer” brush clearing goats are currently getting about $800 a week for the service.

As an industry, on average, the annual salary ranges from $34,000 to $49,000.


Goat farming has witnessed a surge in popularity for various compelling reasons, making it an attractive venture for both seasoned farmers and newcomers to the agricultural industry. The rise of goat farming can be attributed to its low entry barriers, diverse revenue streams, ease of management, and quick return on investment. Additionally, the sustainability of land use, niche markets, and the versatility of goat breeds have all contributed to the industry’s growth.

One of the key advantages of goat farming is its accessibility. Unlike some other livestock ventures that require substantial initial investments, starting a goat farming business is relatively affordable. This makes it accessible to a wide range of individuals, including those with limited resources who are looking to enter the farming sector. The lower cost of entry allows for greater participation and entrepreneurial opportunities.

Goat farming offers a multitude of income streams, including meat, milk, fiber, and brush-clearing services. This diversification not only provides farmers with multiple avenues for revenue but also contributes to a more resilient and sustainable business model. The ability to tap into various markets and adapt to changing consumer preferences adds flexibility to goat farming enterprises.

One of the remarkable characteristics of goats is their hardiness and adaptability. They are known for being easier to manage and requiring less intensive care compared to larger livestock like cattle or pigs. This lower level of required maintenance can be a significant advantage for individuals who are new to farming or those looking for a manageable and less labor-intensive agricultural endeavor.

Goats reach maturity relatively quickly, which means that farmers can realize returns on their investment sooner than with many other livestock animals. This rapid turnaround time can be appealing to those seeking quicker profits and a shorter waiting period to see their business thrive.

Goat farming also contributes to sustainable land use. Goats are efficient at clearing underbrush, making them valuable for land maintenance and fire prevention. Their ability to graze and control invasive plant species reduces the need for heavy machinery and herbicides, which can have positive environmental impacts.

Niche markets for goat products, such as goat cheese, milk, and fiber, continue to grow. These specialty markets often cater to consumers willing to pay a premium for high-quality and unique products. Farmers can tap into these markets by focusing on producing exceptional goat-derived goods, thereby potentially increasing their profitability.

The diversity of goat breeds available allows farmers to align their choice of breed with their specific business goals. Whether the aim is to raise goats for meat, milk, fiber, or other purposes, there are suitable breeds to meet those objectives.

Furthermore, goat farming provides educational opportunities for individuals, schools, and communities interested in learning about agriculture and animal husbandry. Farms that offer agrotourism or educational programs can strengthen the connections between farmers and their local communities, fostering a greater understanding of the farming industry.

In addition to educational benefits, goat farming also offers opportunities for community engagement. Farmers who open their farms to the public for tours or events create a sense of community and allow urban dwellers to connect with the agricultural world.

From an environmental perspective, goat farming can have positive impacts, particularly in terms of land management. Goats’ ability to clear underbrush and control invasive plant species contributes to maintaining healthy ecosystems. Moreover, their grazing practices reduce the need for heavy machinery, which can be less environmentally friendly.

Lastly, the goat farming industry presents ample opportunities for innovation. Farmers can explore new techniques in breeding, sustainable farming practices, and product development. As the industry continues to evolve, there is room for creativity and ingenuity, which can lead to improved efficiency and increased profitability.

Image: Depositphotos

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Lisa Price Lisa Price is a freelance writer living in Barnesville, Pennsylvania. She has a B.A. in English with a minor in journalism from Shippensburg State College (Pennsylvania). She has worked as a trucking company dock supervisor, newspaper circulation district manager, radio station commercial writer, assistant manager of a veterinary pharmaceutical warehouse and newspaper reporter.

2 Reactions
  1. Webster hamainza

    This is quite interesting. I also registered for goats rearing project. Am registered under Pacra and successfully made it. I have a challenge on how to find donors to start up my project.

  2. In Kenya, can goat farming work in cold areas like Kinangop?

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